Sunday, April 3, 2011



            The human skeleton is made largely of bone, and a few parts such as the nose, ears and the soft discs between bones in the backbone which are made of cartilage. The skull, which contain 22 bones have the cranial and the facial bones. The cranial bones enclose and protect the brain. The facial bones protect and provide support for the entrances to the digestive system and the respiratory system.

 Next, the vertebral column is also called the spine or backbone. It is compose of a series of bones called vertebrae. The vertebral column encloses and protects the spinal cord. They consist of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacrum and 4 coccyx. Between the vertebrae are intervertebral discs which permit movement of the column and absorb vertical shock.

            The appendicular skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle, humerus, ulna, radius, pelvic girdle, femur, tibia and fibula. The right and left pectoral girdles each consists of two bones that is a clavicle and a scapula. The humerus is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb. At the shoulder, it articulates with the scapula while at the elbow, it articulates with the ulna and radius. The carpus or wrist of the hand consist of eight small bones called carpals. The metacarpus or palm of the hand contains five bones called metacarpals. Phalanges are the bones of the fingers. In each hand, there are two phalanges in the thumb and three phalanges in each of the other four digits.

            The pelvic girdle consist of two hip bones that provide strong and stable support for the vertebral column. The hip bones are joined to each other at a joint called pubic symphysis. The femur or thigh bone is the longest, heaviest and strongest bone in the body. The head of the femur forms a joint with the hip bone while the other end of the femur forms a joint with the tibia. The patella or kneecap is a small triangular bone which protects the knee joint. Beside that’s, the tibia can bears the weight of the body and fibula which is parallel and lateral to the tibia, is smaller than tibia. Next, the tarsus or ankle of the foot contains seven bones called tarsals. Five bones called metatarsals from the skeleton of the metatarsus or foot. The phalanges of the foot resemble those of the hand both in number and arrangement.

            In addition, we also have joints. Joint is the place two o more bones meet. At the joint, the bones are held together by tough sheets of elastic fibres called ligaments. A joint that contains a cavity filled with fluid is called a synovial joint. It allow free movement and contains synovial fluid that acts as lubricant which reduces friction between the ends of the bones. The end of bones are covered with cartilage which cushios the joint and absorbs shock instead of to protect the bones from wearing away.

They are different kinds of joint that allow different movement. A hinge joint allows the movement of bones in one plane. It can be found in the elbow, phalanges of the fingers and toes, and the knees. The knee joint allows the lower leg to swing back and forth just like a hinge on a door. The second one is ball-and-socket joints that allows rotational movement of bones in all directions. It also allows the swinging of arms and legs in a circular motion. Examples of ball-and-socket joints are the shoulder joint between the humerus and the pectoral girdle, and the hip joint between the femur and the pelvic girdle.

There are several consequences of impaired muscular-skeletal system that is muscle cramp which is a sudden contraction of muscle, results in a sudden, intense pain and inability to use the affected muscles. A cramp can last from a few seconds to 15 minutes or longer. The second disease is muscular dystrophy. It is caused by the progressive degeneration and weakening of the skeletal muscles that control also caused by a mutated gene in the X chromosome and mainly affect boys. At present, there is no cure for muscular dystrophy. 

The third disease is arthritis. It refer to a group of skeletal disorders that involve inflammation of the joint. The joint will become swollen, stiff and painful. One form of arthritis is osteoarthritis which is part of the ageing process caused by the wear and tear of the cartilage between the bones inside certain joints. It may also result in a decreased production of the synovial fluid in the joints. The patient usually suffers from a painful and stiff knee which restricts daily activities such as walking and climbing stairs. If treatment fail to relieve the pain, a surgeon can replace the damaged joints with artificial ones made of plastic or metal.

Thank you.

 this is mine...da cop

ak dah bhgi kn,,,so korang amek le part korang eh...
ak cop purple...

n nnty sape2 tolong printkn eh..
wat 3 salinan,,ak tade printer nih...

tag to 

ak taw naek skula dah ade,,haha!!!


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